These include epidermoid cysts, dermoid cysts, sweat ductal cysts and epidermal inclusion cysts. As they are benign, they are easily treatable, though the treatment option for each varies.
While technically these are not tumors, they must be borne in mind when making a diagnosis of cancer. Lesions include stye, chalazion and parasitic infections.
Hemangiomas are vascular lesions that can mimic eye tumors. They may possibly be a capillary hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma or a lymphangioma. They are often seen in infants and children. If found, it needs fairly urgent treatment as it can have an impact on vision and lead to in blindness.
Benign Epithelial Lesions:
These include squamous papillomas, seborrhoeic keratosis, inverted follicular keratosis and keratoacanthoma. Squamous papillomas appear round or pedunculated and have a smooth surface.
A number of different eyelid lesions may possibly become cancerous. They include Actinic keratosis, leukoplakia, Xeroderma pigmentosum and radiation dermatosis. Actinic keratosis occurs in sun-exposed areas and appears like a white, scaly lesion.
Common viral lesions include molluscum contagiosum, verruca vulgaris , herpes simplex and herpes zoster.
Molluscum contagiosum is seen in individuals with low immunity, and can cause conjunctivitis.
Herpes simplex and zoster are treated with antiviral agents.
Types of Eyelid Malpositions
These are the cancerous lesions, and include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma and sebaceous gland carcinoma.
Basal Cell Carcinoma:
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common eyelid malignancy, and occurs as a small module at the inner aspect of the eye (medial canthus). They are locally invasive and require surgical excision.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma is not as common, and appears red and scaly with an ulcer in the center. It is prone to distant spread so must be excised as soon as possible.
Sebaceous carcinoma is seen in elderly population, and can spread to lymph nodes and distant organs. Radical surgery is often needed. Melanomas are rare and may possibly need excision.
Other Eyelid Lesions:
These include Xanthelasma, nevi and Caruncular Tumors. Most are benign and require simple treatments. Xanthalesma is associated with high cholesterol levels in the blood.